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Comparing Types of Buttercream Frosting

Learn the differences between the three most common kinds of buttercream: American buttercream, Swiss meringue buttercream, and Italian meringue buttercream.

Silky smooth buttercream

What is Buttercream?

Buttercream, in its most simple form, is a mixture of butter and sugar that has been creamed together to make a fluffy frosting. Buttercream is used for filling, icing, and decorating cakes and pastries.

It is no surprise that the fat in buttercream is typically all butter, which is where the name comes from. However, some buttercream recipes do call for other fats, like shortening, to create a more stable style of buttercream called decorators buttercream.

Bags of Buttercream labeled: American, Swiss and Italian

Types of Buttercream

There are a variety of styles of buttercreams all varying in their degree of difficulty to make. Each style of buttercream has different pros and cons as well as best uses in the pastry kitchen.

There are three types of buttercreams that are most often used: American Buttercream, Swiss Meringue Buttercream, and Italian Meringue Buttercream.

There are a few other types of buttercream that are less commonly used like French Buttercream, German Buttercream, and a very new style of buttercream called G.G. Glossy Buttercream (or Korean Glossy Buttercream).

General Buttercream Guidelines

  • To properly cream the butter to form the buttercream, the butter must start at room temperature. If the butter is too cold, the emulsion might break causing a separated buttercream.
  • Buttercream is a blank canvas that can be flavored with virtually anything such as extracts, spices, melted chocolate, jams, and curds. As a general rule of thumb, the flavoring added to the buttercream should not exceed half the weight of the butter in the recipe.
  • If the buttercream will not be used right away it must be stored in the refrigerator. It will firm up quite a bit and should be allowed to come back to room temperature before piping or spreading.
  • Buttercream should always be served at room temperature. Because buttercream has such a high fat content, the texture will not be pleasant if eaten cold and will leave an extra greasy mouthfeel.

Cupcakes topped with American Buttercream frosting

American Buttercream

American buttercream, also known as simple buttercream, is the easiest buttercream frosting to make and the one most commonly used in non-professional kitchens.

American buttercream is made simply by creaming together butter and confectioners sugar with milk or cream. If desired, vanilla extract or another flavoring may be added.

American buttercream is typically made from a ratio of 2:1 sugar to butter by weight. This ratio makes this style of buttercream the sweetest of all the styles.

American buttercream is also sometimes referred to as “crusting buttercream” because it forms a thin crust after exposed to air for some time, which can be desirable in some situations.

American Buttercream whipped with a paddle in a stand mixer

American Buttercream Overview

  • Skill Level: Beginner
  • Characteristics: ivory color, relatively thick texture, easy to pipe, very sweet flavor, forms thin crust when exposed to air
  • Best for: simple cakes and cupcakes such as this classic white cake, last minute frosting needs, base for intricate designs, when crusting is desired
  • American Buttercream Recipe

Note: A lighter variation on this buttercream can be made by whipping the butter with marscarpone cheese.

Cupcakes topped with Swiss Meringue Buttercream

 Swiss Meringue Buttercream

Swiss meringue buttercream, also known simply as Swiss buttercream, is perhaps the buttercream most commonly used in professional pastry kitchens. This style of buttercream gets its name because it starts out with the process of making Swiss meringue.

Swiss meringue buttercream is somewhat more difficult than American buttercream because it involves a double boiler to heat the egg whites and sugar. This mixture is beaten into a meringue and then butter and flavorings are added.

Swiss Meringue being whipped in a stand mixer

Swiss meringue buttercream is silky smooth and less sweet than American buttercream. Because of the cooked sugar, it also does not form a crust and is a relatively stable style of buttercream. It is also a very pale ivory color which makes it perfect for adding color.

Swiss Meringue Buttercream Overview

    • Skill Level: Intermediate
    • Characteristics: pale white color, fairly stable, silky smooth texture, not overly sweet, strong butter flavor, remains soft when exposed to air
    • Best for: layer cakes, creating a silky smooth finish, frosting that will be colored like for Succulent Cupcakes, when jams or curds will be used as flavoring
    • Swiss Meringue Buttercream Recipe

Swiss Meringue Buttercream pipped onto a cupcake in the shape of a rose

Italian Meringue Buttercream

Italian meringue buttercream, also known simply as Italian buttercream, is the most stable of all of the buttercreams but also the most difficult to make. This style of buttercream gets its name because it starts out with the process of making Italian meringue.

The element of Italian meringue buttercream that makes it so difficult to make is that a boiling hot sugar syrup must be streamed into the egg whites as they are whipped. This process requires the baker to take great care not to burn themselves and to cook the sugar syrup to a very specific temperature.

Sugar syrup being poured into whipped egg whites to make Italian Meringue

Italian Meringue Buttercream Overview

  • Skill Level: Advanced
  • Characteristics: pale white color, most stable of all the buttercreams, luxurious mouthfeel, lightest texture, not overly sweet, remains soft when exposed to air
  • Best for: standing up to higher temperatures, frosting that will be colored, intricate designs like the Basket of Flowers Cake, layer cakes
  • Italian Meringue Buttercream Recipe

Chocolate Italian meringue buttercream

French Buttercream

French buttercream is a lesser well known style of buttercream. In contrast to the meringue style buttercreams, French buttercream utilizes the yolks instead of the egg whites. Because of this, French buttercream is naturally yellow in color.

The process of making French buttercream is almost identical to making an Italian meringue buttercream. You must heat your sugar to 240 degrees F and pour it into the mixer while the egg yolks are beating. This buttercream tastes very similar to a custard like pastry cream.

French Buttercream Overview

  • Skill Level: Advanced
  • Characteristics: Yellow color due to egg yolks, very rich in flavor, slightly sweet, not very stable- does not hold up to heat well, tastes similar to pastry cream,  very silky smooth
  • Best for: Using as a filling in a cake, topping a cupcake, as a base for a fruit tart instead of custard
  • French Buttercream Recipe

German Buttercream

German buttercream is a custard based buttercream. The recipe starts exactly the same way a pastry cream does by mixing whole eggs with cornstarch and sugar and then pouring warm cream into the mixture. This mixture is then cooked until thickened. The custard is then beaten into butter

German Buttercream Overview

  • Skill Level: Intermediate
  • Characteristics: Light yellow in color due to using whole eggs, softer than meringue buttercreams or american buttercreams, does not hold up well in hot temperatures, lightly sweet in flavor, very silky smooth, very buttery in flavor
  • Best for: Filling a cake, piping on top of cupcakes
  • German Buttercream Recipe

Korean Buttercream (aka Glossy Buttercream, or G.G. Buttercream)

Korean buttercream (also known as glossy buttercream or G.G. glossy buttercream) is the newest style of buttercream taking the internet by storm. This style of buttercream was developed G.G. More who has a YouTube Channel G.G. Cakraft. This style of buttercream gained popularity for the way it makes beautiful piped buttercream flowers.

Korean glossy buttercream is exactly the same as Italian meringue buttercream with one small change. The butter in Korean buttercream is cold when it is beaten in. This one change completely changes the texture and look of the final buttercream.

Korean Buttercream Overview

  • Skill Level: Advanced
  • Characteristics: Very glossy in consistency, almost transparent in color, holds its shape very well, withstands heat very well
  • Best for: Piping buttercream flowers for cupcakes and cake toppers, doing intricate buttercream designs
  • Korean Buttercream Recipe

Buttercream Flavor Options

You can flavor any style of buttercream. Here a few flavoring ideas!

  • Vanilla Buttercream: Beat in 2 tsp vanilla extract to any recipe above.
  • “Wedding Cake” Buttercream: Beat in 1 tsp vanilla extract and 1/2 tsp almond extract to any recipe above.
  • Chocolate Buttercream: Beat in 8 oz melted and cooled dark or bittersweet chocolate to any recipe above.
  • Lemon Curd Buttercream: Fold in 1 cup of lemon curd to any recipe above.
  • Strawberry, Raspberry, or Blackberry Buttercream: Fold in 1 cup of seedless preserves into any recipe above.


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29 comments on “Comparing Types of Buttercream Frosting”

  1. First I have not made any of these recipes as I only found you yesterday on Pinterest. I will, but I Love the way you explain the Differences in the various Buttercreams used for frostings. This I always wondered and didn’t bother to research, I am only so so at making Frostings. Good enough to please my family but not great in my book. I agree with your description at the bottom of each page about your beliefs in helping a person gain confidence in the kitchen. BASICS are incredibly important as well as following the recipes, paying attention to the TIPS that one has shared. It’s all in the knowledge of how to be successful or fail. Baking is a Science as I have well learned. Also, your site has the simplicity and ease of reading and isn’t so cluttered that staying on task is easy. With the internet these days pages get too cluttered, making it too easy to get sidetracked. Thank you for your hard work, and a great site.

    • Hi Roni! This comment means so much to me. Thank you for writing it! I love to teach the basics and really appreciate that you find it useful. I’m so glad you enjoy my site and the information provided!

  2. Thank you for your response. I think that viewers NEED to see the comments about following TIPS. We learn these by trial and error. I have tried so many internet recipes that were not written well, so with that is many Fails. You have done a wonderful job explaining so much to help us. Kudos my Dear.

    • I’ve made all of these and I am a novice baker. Follow directions exactly and use a thermometer for the cooked ones. My question is which would work best with the Russian decorating tips. I recently bought a set. Also, I live in a hot climate and even working in AC affects the frostings. Very frustrating. Thanks for an informative article.

    • Hello sis this was very useful for me I am literally fed up with American butter cream because it is too sweet I wanted to try Swiss meringue and Italian butter cream but I wanted some tips and help so I ended up here Thank you so much for taking the time and trouble to pen it. You have done a great job.

  3. Thank you so much for your detailed and clear explanations. I teach this subject and we have just done a lesson around ‘Fats in cake making’ taking notes from your video. We can do frostings next. My students love the fact that you have are so knowledgeable. Thanks again.

  4. Great information! Which type of buttercream would be best for piping ruffles around a round cake?

    • I’m wondering about piping as well, which would be best for roses?…

      • I personally like to use american buttercream for flowers because it crusts over and is easier to transfer onto the cake. You can use italian or swiss meringue too, however, the flower will stay soft so if it gets bumped it will mess it up.

    • You can use either of the meringue types for that! They will both work well, but be aware that they won’t harden the way American does. So if you want it to be more stable in case it gets bumped, you can use american.

  5. Can flavors/extracts be added in the GG glossy buttercream? I tried ot today and it isn’t too tasty, it taste like sweet cream butter.

    • Hi Rebecca, yes you can add extracts. The glossy buttercream really isn’t meant to be super delicious. It is used for beautiful roses so the focus is more on the texture instead of the taste. But I totally get what you’re saying. You can vanilla or almond extract into it to help it along.

  6. Amazing description. There is one missing, sugar geek has it and it’s called smbc starts with whites and sugar and then you add soft butter, turns out amazing 

    • Hi Daisy! Glad you enjoyed the info! “SMBC” is an acronym for Swiss Meringue Buttercream- the second one listed here. It is delicious!

  7. Hello! Check lizzo marek one, it’s not the Swiss meringue traditional! It’s all done “cold” and it’s really good

    • Oh interesting! I’ve actually had it on my list to give this a try but didn’t know it already existed. The process of making a cold meringue is French meringue so it would technically be a French meringue buttercream. I kept saying to my assistant “I’ve never seen anyone try that, we should try it.” but we just haven’t got around to it. Glad to know it works!

  8. Thanks so much was really helpful….
    U are the best teacher.

  9. Thank you for the deep look into these butter creams! It definitely helps to know how well each one will hold up when piping flowers, especially roses. 

  10. I dont know if it’s just me but I dont really like American buttercream because its painfully sweet and Italian and Swiss buttercream is way too buttery. Lately I’ve been seeing a few recipes for russian buttercream which is made out of condensed milk and butter. I wanted to know your opinion and if it is also super buttery

  11. LOVED this explanation!!! Thank you! 

  12. Love this Posting and it’s simplicity. I have a few questions….Have you used freeze dried fruit and ground into a powder to add color and flavor? Also can I use any of these recipes to make a chocolate ganache whipped frosting?

  13. Hi. Can you advise on the cost comparison of making the different buttercreams?

  14. Thank you for all this great info! I recently tried and loved a buttercream to which whipped cream was folded into. Everyone went nuts over this and I loved the texture. What is this called? I didn’t see it on the list. Thanks, Amy

  15. This is so helpful. I’d like my American buttercream a bit crustier but I don’t want to use more powdered sugar than necessary,  how long should I let the buttercream sit and when I stir it, won’t that get rid of the crusting?
    Thank you 

  16. I enjoyed all the information on this page and learned a lot. Thank you very much!

  17. Omggg the ads are just… 

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