Baker Bettie

Basic Choux Pastry (Pate a Choux)

Learn how to make the basic choux pastry batter (pate a choux). Choux pastry is a simple to make classic french pastry batter that has all kinds of uses including cream puffs, eclairs, profiteroles, beignets, cheese puffs, parisienne gnocchi, and much more! Pin it for Later »

Finished choux pastry in a pot

Choux Pastry Overview

Skill Level: Intermediate | Techniques Used: Making & Drying Out a Panade

What is Choux Pastry?

Choux Pastry, also known as Pate a Choux, is a classic French pastry batter. In its basic form, it contains only water, milk, butter, flour, and eggs. One of the unique features of choux pastry is the batter is cooked on the stove top forming a sort of soft dough/stiff batter hybrid.

The pastry relies heavily on the amount of moisture present to create rise and puff in the pastries. The steam created when the water starts to evaporate in the oven is what creates the lovely hollow pastries that are filled with custards and creams or left empty and perfectly light and airy.

What Can You Make with Choux Pastry?

Choux pastry is an incredibly versatile pastry dough that can be used for many sweet and savory baking applications. When the batter is piped and baked it transforms into profiteroles, cream puffs, eclairs, and gougere (cheese puffs). When the batter is fried it becomes French crullers, beignets, and churros. Blanch then bake or saute the batter and parisienne gnocchi is the result. It’s like magic. One dough for so many different glorious final results!

How to Make Choux Pastry

For this tutorial, we are making choux pastry in its basic form, but it is a template to edit as you desire. If you want to make a sweet pastry dough, a few tablespoons of sugar could be added. And if you want to go a more savory route, some additional salt would be appropriate.

The liquid can also be substituted with something more flavorful or colorful – fruit or vegetable juice or stock would all work well. Herbs, spices, and extracts can also be added. Choux pastry is your blank canvas!

Step 1: Boil the Liquid & Butter

The water, milk, butter, and salt are all brought to a boil. The butter needs to be completely melted and the mixture should be boiling before moving on to the next step.

Step 1 of choux pastry, milk, water, butter coming to a boil

Step 2: Create the Panade (Add the Flour)

Remove the boiling mixture from the heat and pour all of the flour into the pot at once. Stir vigorously until it all comes together into a smooth batter. This first mixture is called a panade, which is just a culinary term for a starchy thickener.

Choux pastry after flour has been mixed in

Step 3: Dry out the Panade

Once the flour is completely incorporated into a smooth batter, bring the pot back to medium heat and flatten the mixture to the bottom of the pan. Let it sit there until you start to hear it crackling quite a bit. At this point, push the mixture to one side and if you see a thin film clinging to the bottom of the pan it is dried out enough. If it is not, continue cooking it until a film forms.

Choux pastry after it has been dried out before adding eggs

Film in bottom of pan indicating the choux pastry is dried out enough.

Step 4: Evacuate the Steam

Remove the mixture from the heat and stir it until most of the steam has evaporated off. This process continues to dry out the pastry and will allow the pastry to achieve a nice golden color when cooked.

Step 5: Beat in the Eggs

Off of the heat, add the eggs in one at a time. Stir vigorously after each egg until it is completely absorbed into the batter before adding the next. Once all of the eggs are added and thoroughly mixed in, the batter will have a smooth and glossy look. The glossiness is an indication of when the choux pastry is ready for use!

Mixing eggs into choux pastry

Step 6: Bake with your Choux Pastry!

Choux pastry is best when used within a few hours of making it. While it can be used immediately, I find I have the best results when the batter has rested for about an hour. Transfer it to a pastry bag and use for any kind of choux pastry needs!

Choux pastry can be used for so many delicious pastries! Below are a few to test out your choux pastry skills with:

FInished choux pastry in a pot

Basic Choux Pastry, Pate a Choux

Yield: About 1 1/2 lbs
Prep Time: 15 minutes
Total Time: 15 minutes

Choux pastry (pate a choux) is a simple to make classic french pastry batter that has many uses including cream puffs, eclairs, profiteroles, beignets, cheese puffs, parisienne gnocchi, and much more! 


  • 1/2 cup (4 fl oz, 118 ml) water
  • 1/2 cup (4 fl oz, 118 ml) milk
  • 1 stick (1/2 cup, 4 oz, 113 gr) unsalted butter, cut into pieces
  • large pinch kosher salt
  • 1 cup (4.25 oz, 119 grams) all-purpose flour
  • 4 large eggs


  1. Place the water, milk, butter, and salt in a sauce pot over medium high heat. Stir until butter is melted and everything comes to a boil. When the mixture is boiling, take it off the heat and pour the flour into the pot all at once. Stir quickly and vigorously. This mixture is called the panade.
  2. When the mixture becomes smooth, flatten it to the bottom of the pan and return it to medium heat. Let the mixture sit on the bottom of the pan until you start to hear it crackling. At this point pull the mixture to the side and if there is a thin film left on the bottom of the pan it is dried out enough. If there is not, let it heat for a little while longer until a film forms.
  3. Remove the mixture from the heat and stir until most of the steam has evaporated. This is called "evacuating the steam" and is important to further dry out the pastry dough.
  4. Off of the heat, add one egg at a time into the mixture and stir vigorously until it is completely absorbed into the dough before adding the next. The batter will look smooth and glossy when it is ready. Alternatively, you can move the mixture to a stand mixer and mix in the eggs one at a time with the paddle attachment. This is more helpful when making larger batches of choux pastry.
  5. Use immediately or store covered in a cool spot for up to 3 hours.
Nutrition Information:

Amount Per Serving: Calories: 80

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35 comments on “Basic Choux Pastry (Pate a Choux)”

  1. Hello baker Bettie, this is one of my favorite desserts. Filled with custard and topped with caramel sauce or just dusting sugar, great. I'll be waiting for new fillings and new ingredients to the basic dogh. Have a great day.

  2. I love eating the various treats that choux produces. I love this tutorial. I will no longer be afraid of attempting The Choux. Your site is a bit different–I love it!

  3. Thanks for doing this Pate a choux series. I have always wanted to attempt making it but I never have (and I’m loving your step by step photos, so helpful). Cream puffs are definatly on the menu this week.

  4. I’ve never posted a comment before even though I read you all the time …. Well, you certainly have my full attention with these photos and this recipe! Can’t wait to see how to shape, bake and fill them! I bet they taste heavenly.

  5. loooooooooooove pate a choux and I’m so excited for all your upcoming posts about it!!

  6. It’s been ages since I’ve made pate choux…Can’t wait to see your recipes!

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  13. we made pate a choux all the time when I was a child growing up, but of course I never had a recipe to make them now after many years living here in the States. I could not find the recipe that had apples in the pate a choux, but I will experiment with it and look forward to more of your recipes

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  16. Is there a way to make these Gluten Free? I have the GF Flour but would I need to add something else?

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  19. Does it work to double this recipe?

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  21. Hi Bettie! First if I am a huge fan and admire your blog greatly! I love this recipe it reminds me of the years I spent making them in the restaurant I use to work in. But I love your recipe more especially making them the gougeres! Your recipe is definitely easy to understand which I so appreciate. Thank you! 
    xo, Katie 

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  25. The pastry shells coming out of the oven are usually darker at the bottom, but inside the shell, it is not really dry. Maybe it’s because of my oven. I just can’t figure it out

    • Hi there! Perhaps try moving the oven rack up a rung to see if that helps. It would also be worth checking your oven temperature with an oven thermometer. Also, are you using dark coated pans? That could definitely make the bottoms become too dark!

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  28. Can this be made with GF flour and non dairy milk as well?

    • Hi Rebecca, I have never tested choux pastry with gluten free flour. The non-dairy milk shouldn’t cause any issues, but I’m more unsure about the gluten free flour. I would recommend a good gluten free baking blend if you do want to try it and let me know if you do!

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  30. I was gonna use your recipe, but you do not show the end product. 🙁 On to the next…

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